Saturday, July 18, 2020

Fresh Ink May 6, 2014

Fresh Ink May 6, 2014 HARDCOVER RELEASES The Bees by Laline Paull (Ecco)   Born into the lowest class of her rigid, hierarchical society, Flora 717 is a sanitation worker, an Untouchable fit only to clean and remove the bodies of the dead from her orchard hive. As part of the collective, she is taught to Accept, Obey, Serveâ€"work and sacrifice are the highest virtues, and worship of her beloved Queen the only religion. Her society is governed by the priestess class, questions are forbidden, and all thoughts belong to the Hive Mind.  But Flora is not like other beesâ€"a difference that holds profound consequences. With circumstances threatening the hive’s survival, her curiosity is regarded as a dangerous flaw but her courage and strength are an asset. She is allowed to feed the newborns in the royal nursery and then to become a forager, flying alone and free to collect pollen. She also finds her way into the Queen’s inner sanctum, where she discovers mysteries about the hive that are both profound and ominous.  But when Flora breaks the most sacred law of allâ€"daring to challenge the Queen’s fertilityâ€"enemies abound, from the fearsome fertility police who enforce the strict social hierarchy; to the high priestesses jealously wedded to power. Her deepest instincts to serve and sacrifice are now overshadowed by an even deeper desire, a fierce maternal love that will bring her into conflict with her conscience, her heart, her societyâ€"and lead her to unthinkable deeds. The Snow Queen by Michael Cunningham (Farrar, Straus and Giroux)   It’s November 2004. Barrett Meeks, having lost love yet again, is walking through Central Park when he is inspired to look up at the sky; there he sees a pale, translucent light that seems to regard him in a distinctly godlike way. Barrett doesn’t believe in visionsâ€"or in Godâ€"but he can’t deny what he’s seen. At the same time, in the not-quite-gentrified Bushwick neighborhood of Brooklyn, Tyler, Barrett’s older brother, a struggling musician, is tryingâ€"and failingâ€"to write a wedding song for Beth, his wife-to-be, who is seriously ill.  Tyler is determined to write a song that will be not merely a sentimental ballad but an enduring expression of love. Barrett, haunted by the light, turns unexpectedly to religion. Tyler grows increasingly convinced that only drugs can release his creative powers. Beth tries to face mortality with as much courage as she can summon. The Painter by Peter Heller (Knopf)   Jim Stegner has seen his share of violence and loss. Years ago he shot a man in a bar. His marriage disintegrated. He grieved the one thing he loved. In the wake of tragedy, Jim, a well-known expressionist painter, abandoned the art scene of Santa Fe to start fresh in the valleys of rural Colorado. Now he spends his days painting and fly-fishing, trying to find a way to live with the dark impulses that sometimes overtake him. He works with a lovely model. His paintings fetch excellent prices. But one afternoon, on a dirt road, Jim comes across a man beating a small horse, and a brutal encounter rips his quiet life wide open. Fleeing Colorado, chased by men set on retribution, Jim returns to New Mexico, tormented by his own relentless conscience. History of the Rain by Niall Williams (Bloomsbury USA)   We are our stories. We tell them to stay alive or keep alive those who only live now in the telling. That’s how it seems to me, being alive for a little while, the teller and the told. So says Ruthie Swain. The bedridden daughter of a dead poet, home from college after a collapse (Something Amiss, the doctors say), she is trying to find her father through storiesâ€"and through generations of family history in County Clare (the Swains have the written stories, from salmon-fishing journals to poems, and the maternal MacCarrolls have the oral) and through her own writing (with its Superabundance of Style). Ruthie turns also to the books her father left behind, his library transposed to her bedroom and stacked on the floor, which she pledges to work her way through while she’s still living. In her attic room, with the rain rushing down the windows, Ruthie writes Ireland, with its weather, its rivers, its lilts, and its lows. The stories she uncovers and recounts bring back to life multiple generations buried in this soilâ€"and they might just bring her back into the world again, too. But Enough About You: Essays by Christopher Buckley (Simon Schuster)   In his first book of essays since his 1997 bestseller,  Wry Martinis, Buckley delivers a rare combination of big ideas and truly fun writing. Tackling subjects ranging from “How to Teach Your Four-Year-Old to Ski” to “A Short History of the Bug Zapper,” and “The Art of Sacking” to literary friendships with Joseph Heller and Christopher Hitchens, he is at once a humorous storyteller, astute cultural critic, adventurous traveler, and irreverent historian. Reading these essays is the equivalent of being in the company of a tremendously witty and enlightening companion. Praised as “both deeply informed and deeply funny” by  The Wall Street Journal, Buckley will have you laughing and reflecting in equal measure. After the End by Amy Plum (HarperTeen)   Juneau has grown up knowing that she and the rest of the people in her village are some of  the only survivors of World War III. But when Juneau returns from a hunting trip one day and discovers that everyone in her village has disappeared, she sets off to find them. Leaving the boundaries in remote Alaska  for the very first time, she learns a horrifying truth: There never was a war.  Everything was a lie.Juneau must now make her way in a modern world she never knew existed. But while she’s struggling to rescue her friends and family, someone else is looking for her. Someone who knows the extraordinary truth about the secrets of her past. The Last Kind Words Saloon by Larry McMurtry (Liverlight)   Opening in the settlement of Long Grass, Texas-not quite in Kansas, and nearly New Mexico-we encounter the taciturn Wyatt, whiling away his time in between bottles, and the dentist-turned-gunslinger Doc, more adept at poker than extracting teeth. Now hailed as heroes for their days of subduing drunks in Abilene and Dodge-more often with a mean look than a pistol-Wyatt and Doc are living out the last days of a way of life that is passing into history, two men never more aware of the growing distance between their lives and their legends. Along with Wyatts wife, Jessie, who runs the titular saloon, we meet Lord Ernle, an English baron; the exotic courtesan San Saba, the most beautiful whore on the plains; Charlie Goodnight, the Texas Ranger turned cattle driver last seen in McMurtrys  Comanche Moon, and Nellie Courtright, the witty and irrepressible heroine of  Telegraph Days. McMurtry traces the rich and varied friendship of Wyatt Earp and Doc Holiday from the town of Long Grass to Buffalo Bills Wild West Show in Denver, then to Mobetie, Texas, and finally to Tombstone, Arizona, culminating with the famed gunfight at the O.K. Corral, rendered here in McMurtrys stark and peerless prose. With the buffalo herds gone, the Comanche defeated, and vast swaths of the Great Plains being enclosed by cattle ranches, Wyatt and Doc live on, even as the storied West that forged their myths disappears. As harsh and beautiful, and as brutal and captivating as the open range it depicts,  The Last Kind Words Salooncelebrates the genius of one of our most original American writers. The Book of You by Claire Kendall (Harper)   Most people dread the prospect of jury duty, but university administrator Clarissa wants nothing more than to be selected for a trial. Every day she serves means a day away from her colleague Rafe, an academic expert on the darker side of folk tales with whom Clarissa spent one drunken night. That encounter only serves to fuel his growing obsession with her, and he is not about to let her slip away.The Book of You is a riveting portrait of a woman terrorizedâ€"emotionally and physicallyâ€"by a man bent on possessing her. As a disturbingly violent crime unfolds in front of her in court, Clarissa finds herself experiencing an equally harrowing nightmare in real life. Realizing that she bears the burden of proof, she uncovers piece by piece the twisted, macabre fairytale Rafe has spun around them both, discovering that the ending he envisions for them is more awful than she could have ever imagined. All the Light We Cannot See by Anthony Doerr (Scribner)   Marie Laure lives with her father in Paris within walking distance of the Museum of Natural History where he works as the master of the locks (there are thousands of locks in the museum). When she is six, she goes blind, and her father builds her a model of their neighborhood, every house, every manhole, so she can memorize it with her fingers and navigate the real streets with her feet and cane. When the Germans occupy Paris, father and daughter flee to Saint-Malo on the Brittany coast, where Marie-Laure’s agoraphobic great uncle lives in a tall, narrow house by the sea wall.In another world in Germany, an orphan boy, Werner, grows up with his younger sister, Jutta, both enchanted by a crude radio Werner finds. He becomes a master at building and fixing radios, a talent that wins him a place at an elite and brutal military academy and, ultimately, makes him a highly specialized tracker of the Resistance. Werner travels through the heart of Hitler Youth to the far-flung outskirts o f Russia, and finally into Saint-Malo, where his path converges with Marie-Laure. The Unwitting by Ellen Feldman (Spiegel Grau)   During the Cold War, many liberal anti-communist writers, artists, musicians, and intellectuals ended up working for organizations that were CIA fronts. CIA protocol dictated that one individual in the various organizations would be investigated, sworn to secrecy, and told about the CIA connection and funding. That individual was, in Agency parlance, witting. Everyone else was unwitting.  The Unwitting  is about a husband who is witting, a wife who is unwitting, and the unraveling of her life when she discovers that the person she is closest to in the world, the husband she loved and trusted, has betrayed her not with another woman but with an allegiance. Wonderland by Stacey DErasmo (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt)   Anna Brundage is a rock star. She is tall and sexy, with a powerhouse voice and an unforgettable mane of red hair. She came out of nowhere, an immediate indie sensation. And then, life happened. Anna went down as fast as she went up, and then walked off the scene for seven years. Without a record deal or clamoring fans, she sells a piece of her famous fathers art to finance just one more album and a European comeback tour. Anna is forty-four. This may be her last chance to cement her place in the life she chose, the life she struggled for, the life shes not sure she can sustain. She falls back easily into the ways of the road-sex with strangers, the search for the perfect moment onstage. To see Anna perform is something-watch her find the note, the electric connection with the audience, the transcendence when it all comes together and the music seems to fill the world. ________________________ PAPERBACK RELEASES Authority by Jeff VanderMeer (FSG Originals)   For thirty years, the only human engagement with Area X has taken the form of a series of expeditions monitored by a secret agency called the Southern Reach. After the disastrous twelfth expedition chronicled in  Annihilation,  the Southern Reach is in disarray, and John Rodriguez, aka “Control,” is the team’s newly appointed head. From a series of interrogations, a cache of hidden notes, and hours of profoundly troubling video footage, the secrets of Area X begin to reveal themselvesâ€"and what they expose pushes Control to confront disturbing truths about both himself and the agency he’s promised to serve. And the consequences will  spread much further than that. The Rathbones by Janice Clark (Anchor)   Mercy, fifteen years old, is the diminutive scion of the Rathbone clan. Her father, the last in the dynasty of New England whalers, has been lost at sea for seven years-ever since the last sperm whale was seen off the coast of Naiwayonk, Connecticut. Mercys memories of her father and of the time before he left grow dimmer each day, and she spends most of her time in the attic hideaway of her reclusive Uncle Mordecai. But when a strange visitor turns up one night, Mercy and Mordecai are forced to flee and set sail on a journey that will bring them deep into the haunted history of the Rathbone family. From the depths of the sea to the lonely heights of the widows walk; from the wisdom of the worn Rathbone wives to the mysterious origins of a sinking island, Mercy and Mordecais enchanting journey will bring them to places they never thought possible. Instructions for a Heatwave by Maggie OFarrell (Vintage)   London, 1976. In the thick of a record-breaking heatwave, Gretta Riordans newly-retired husband has cleaned out his bank account and vanished. Now, for the first time in years, the three Riordan children are converging on their childhood home: Michael Francis, a history teacher whose marriage is failing; Monica, with two stepdaughters who despise her and an ugly secret that has driven a wedge between her and the little sister she once adored; and Aoife (pronounced EE-fah), the youngest, whose new life in Manhattan is elaborately arranged to conceal her illiteracy. As the siblings track down clues to their fathers disappearance, they also navigate rocky pasts and long-held secrets. Their search ultimately brings them to their ancestral village in Ireland, where the truth of their familys past is revealed.   The Residue Years by Mitchell S. Jackson (Bloomsbury USA) Mitchell S. Jackson grew up black in a neglected neighborhood in America’s whitest city, Portland, Oregon. In the ’90s, those streets and beyond had fallen under the shadow of crack cocaine and its familiar mayhem. In his commanding debut autobiographical novel, Mitchell writes what it was to come of age in that time and place, with a breakout voice that’s nothing less than extraordinary. The Residue Years  switches between the perspectives of a young man, Champ, and his mother, Grace. Grace is just out of a drug treatment program, trying to stay clean and get her kids back. Champ is trying to do right by his mom and younger brothers, and dreams of reclaiming the only home he and his family have ever shared. But selling crack is the only sure way he knows to achieve his dream. In this world of few options and little opportunity, where love is your strength and your weakness, this family fights for family and against what tears one apart. The Daughters of Mars by Thomas Keneally (Washington Square Press)   In 1915, Naomi and Sally Durance, two spirited Australian sisters, join the war effort as nurses, escaping the confines of their father’s farm and carrying a guilty secret with them. Used to tending the sick as they are, nothing could have prepared them for what they confront, first on a hospital ship near Gallipoli, then on the Western Front.Yet amid the carnage, the sisters become the friends they never were at home and find themselves courageous in the face of extreme danger and also the hostility from some on their own side. There is great bravery, humor, and compassion, too, and the inspiring example of the remarkable women they serve alongside. In France, where Naomi nurses in a hospital set up by the eccentric Lady Tarlton while Sally works in a casualty clearing station, each meets an exceptional man: the kind of men for whom they might give up some of their newfound independenceâ€"if only they all survive. A Guide to Being Born: Stories by Ramona Ausubel (Riverhead Trade)   Major new literary talent Ramona Ausubel combines the otherworldly wisdom of her much-loved debut novel, No One Is Here Except All of Us, with the precision of the short-story form. A Guide toBeing Born is organized around the stages of lifeâ€"love, conception, gestation, birthâ€"and the transformations that happen as people experience deeply altering life events, falling in love, becoming parents, looking toward the end of life. In each of these eleven stories Ausubel’s stunning imagination and humor are moving, entertaining, and provocative, leading readers to see the familiar world in a new way. In “Atria” a pregnant teenager believes she will give birth to any number of strange animals rather than a human baby; in “Catch and Release” a girl discovers the ghost of a Civil War hero living in the woods behind her house; and in “Tributaries” people grow a new arm each time they fall in love. Funny, surprising, and delightfully strangeâ€"all the stories have a strong emotional core; Ausubel’s primary concern is always love, in all its manifestations. Seven Lives and One Great Love, Memories of a Cat by Lena Divani (Europa Editions)   If you have ever lived with cats you know how cunning, tender, ferocious, underhanded, ingenious, foolish and completely adorable they can be. The same words can be used to describe the hero of this novel, Sugar. This is the storyâ€"a love story of epic dimensionsâ€"of Sugar, a cat with a keen wit and a reflective nature, and his human, Madamigella, a writer with a frenetic and impossibly dispersive life. In this his seventh life, Sugar has countless stories to tell and a remarkable talent for telling them. But his real area of expertise lies in his preternatural ability to domesticate his humansâ€"whatever you do, don’t even suggest that we are the ones who domesticate him and his feline relatives! With wit and a broad repertoire of cultural references, Sugar recounts his days and nights spent with Madamigella in a novel that fits squarely into the illustrious tradition of feline literature a la T.S. Eliot, Edgar Allen Poe, Baudelaire, Bukowski, and Celine. The Orphans of Race Point by Patry Francis (Harper Perennial)   Set in the close-knit Portuguese community of Provincetown, Massachusetts,  The Orphans of Race Pointtraces the relationship between Hallie Costa and Gus Silva, who meet as children in the wake of a terrible crime that leaves Gus parentless. Their friendship evolves into an enduring and passionate love that will ask more of them than they ever imagined. On the night of their high school prom, a terrible tragedy devastates their relationship and profoundly alters the course of their lives. And when, a decade later, Gusâ€"now a priestâ€"becomes entangled with a distraught woman named Ava and her daughter Mila, troubled souls who bring back vivid memories of his own damaged past, the unthinkable happens: he is charged with murder. Can Hallie save the man she’s never stopped loving, by not only freeing him from prison but alsoâ€"finallyâ€"the curse of his past? Save Yourself by Kelly Braffet (Broadway Books)   When Patrick and Mike Cusimanos drunken father is sent to jail on manslaughter charges, they find themselves at the apex of local targeting. Patrick struggles to balance public shame, loss, and inappropriate, awkward temptation. He is desperately in love with Mikes live-in girlfriend, Caro, and amid his efforts to do the right thing, a beautiful but troubled high school bad-girl named Layla develops an unsettling obsession for him. As these two young women push Patrick to a dangerous breaking point, Mike settles further and further into a rut of idle avoidance. Meanwhile, Laylas little sister, Verna, is suffering through her first year of high school. Shes become a prime target for her cruel classmates, not just because of her strange name and her fundamentalist parents: Laylas bad-girl rep proves too heavy a shadow for Verna, so she falls in with her sisters circle of outcasts and misfits whose world is far darker than she ever imagined. The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P by Adelle Waldman (Picador)   Nate Piven is a rising star in Brooklyn’s literary scene. After several lean and striving years, he has his pick of both magazine assignments and women: Juliet, the hotshot business reporter; Elisa, his gorgeous ex-girlfriend; and Hannah, “almost universally regarded as nice and smart, or smart and nice,” who is fun and holds her own in conversation with his friends. In  Nate’s  world, wit and conversation are not at all dead. But is romance? Novelist Waldman plunges into the psyche of a modern man who thinks of himself as beyond superficial judgment yet struggles with status anxiety; who is drawn to women yet has a habit of letting them down. With tough-minded intelligence and wry good humor  The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.  is an absorbing tale of one young man’s search for happiness and an inside look at how he really thinks about women, sex, and love. An Untamed State by Roxanne Gay (Grove Press, Black Cat)   Mireille Duval Jameson is living a fairy tale. The strong-willed youngest daughter of one of Haitis richest sons, she has an adoring husband, a precocious infant son, by all appearances a perfect life. The fairy tale ends one day when Mireille is kidnapped in broad daylight by a gang of heavily armed men, in front of her fathers Port au Prince estate. Held captive by a man who calls himself The Commander, Mireille waits for her father to pay her ransom. As it becomes clear her father intends to resist the kidnappers, Mireille must endure the torments of a man who resents everything she represents. Norwegian by Night by Derek Miller (Mariner Books)   Sheldon Horowitz-widowed, impatient, impertinent-has grudgingly agreed to leave New York and move in with his granddaughter, Rhea, and her new husband, Lars, in Norway-a country of blue and ice with one thousand Jews, not one of them a former Marine sniper in the Korean War turned watch repairman. Not until now, anyway. Home alone one morning, Sheldon witnesses a dispute between the woman who lives upstairs and an aggressive stranger. When events turn dire, Sheldon seizes and shields the neighbors young son from the violence, and they flee the scene. As Sheldon and the boy look for a safe haven in an alien world, past and present weave together, forcing them ever forward to a wrenching moment of truth. The Conditions of Love by Dale M. Kushner (Grand Central Publishing)   In 1953, ten-year-old Eunice lives in the backwaters of Wisconsin with her outrageously narcissistic mother, a  manicureeste  and movie star worshipper. Abandoned by her father as an infant, Eunice worries that she will become a misfit like her mother. When her mothers lover, the devoted Sam, moves in, Eunice imagines her life will finally become normal. But her hope dissolves when Sam gets kicked out, and she is again alone with her mother. A freak storm sends Eunice away from all things familiar. Rescued by the shaman-like Rose, Eunices odyssey continues with a stay in a hermits shack and ends with a passionate love affair with an older man. Through her capacity to redefine herself, reject bitterness and keep her heart open, she survives and flourishes. In this, she is both ordinary and heroic. At once fable and realistic story,  The Conditions of Love  is a book about emotional and physical survival. Through sheer force of will, Eunice saves herself from a doomed life. Scissors by Stephane Michaka (Anchor)   Based on the life of the famed short-story writer Raymond Carver, particularly his final, postalcoholic decade,Scissors  is the story of an author whose life is fraught with personal and creative struggle. Raymonds first marriage is intense, passionate, and deeply unhealthy, but his second, to a poet, is filled with love and support. Throughout both, Raymond (and to some extent, his wives) is in an escalating conflict with his editor, Douglas. As his success and confidence grow, Raymond strives harder and harder to ensure that his stories, the most important part of his life, are published as written, but Douglas, who considers the stories as much his as their authors, is determined to publish them only in a heavily edited form. Raymonds former alcoholism and his past and present relationships always lurk in the background; his wives offer their own perspectives on both; and in the end, after Raymonds death, it is Joanne who finally confronts Douglas in a way that Raymond never could .

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Who Manipulates the Operations and Activities of the United Nations Free Essay Example, 3000 words

The establishment of NATO happened without any comprehensive consultation with the UN. The NATO came as a desire of the western powers to undermine powers of the Soviet Union. The treaty, which formed NATO defeats the purpose of collective security provided in the UN charter. Right from the start, the United States supported the UN as long as it supported its interests. The United States refused to assist the world body when it went contrary to its interests. The western states have used the UN to legitimize their intervention in affairs of other states. The mighty powers use Machinery of the UN as a camouflage with the intention of safeguarding their political, economic and commercial interests. However, these countries claim that moral considerations of supporting the UN motivate their actions. The UN has little it can do to prevent the intervention of the western powers. Although the world body came to avoid intervention, the old system of intervention still remains. The interven tion of western powers in UN affairs clearly shows that the body works in the interest of western states. The action on Korea, taken in 1950 by the United Nations portrays the influence of western powers in UN governance. We will write a custom essay sample on Who Manipulates the Operations and Activities of the United Nations or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Color Purple vs. The Joy Luck Club Essay example

The Color Purple is a biased, unbalanced view into the life of black women during the early to mid-nineteen hundreds. While it is obvious that a woman who in her own right is racist, chauvinist, and ignorant to the way that the world really works wrote the novel, it has been requested that the class write a paper on the story. Whilst this writer does not agree with this novel or anything that Alice Walker thinks or feels, obligingly this paper is been written. The Color Purple and the Joy Luck Club had many similarities, the most notably the presence of weak, ill bred, and quite frankly embarrassing male characters. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The most obvious example of one of these unfortunate male characters is of course Albert from†¦show more content†¦So instead I tell my mother this: â€Å"I don’t really know. It’s something we started before we got married. And for some reason we never stopped.† (Tan 177) It is clear from the tone of the discussion that the idea hurts Lena inside, especially since she makes less than Harold. Amy Tan wrote it this way so that the reader would pity Lean and see Harold as a money grubbing bastard. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Rich is the second example of a weak male character in The Joy Luck Club, and his main flaw is gross ignorance. His new live in girlfriend is Waverly. An entire section of the book is dedicated to the first meeting between Rich and Waverly’s mother and father. During the entire section, Rich makes one blunder after another. He brought a lovely bottle of red wine for dinner, not knowing that the Chinese do not stereotypically drink wine. He fumbled with the chopsticks, took huge portions and refused seconds, and regrettably added a hefty amount of soy sauce to all of the food. In possibly the biggest blunder of the night not only did he call â€Å"Lindo and Tin Jong by their first names but he butchered them calling them Linda and Tim. At the end of the night his ignorance came into play again; I knew he had failed miserably in her eyes. Rich obviously had a different opinion on howShow MoreRelatedBrief Survey of American Literature3339 Words   |  14 PagesRevolution(1789—1799) Romantic vs. Neoclassic (1) Neoclassicism: - reason, order, elegant wit - rationalism of enlightenment in 18th-cent. Romanticism: - passion, emotion, natural beauty - imagination, mysticism, liberalism (freedom to express personal feelings) Romantic vs. Neoclassic (2) Innovation: - subjects: common life; the supernatural; the far away and the long ago - style: common language really used by men; poetic symbolism Romantic vs. Neoclassic(3) Good poetryRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 PagesAction Plans 59 Demonstrating Comprehension: Questions for Review 80 Key Terms 80 81 HRM Workshop Linking Concepts to Practice: Discussion Questions 81 Developing Diagnostic and Analytical Skills 81 Case Application 3-A: Diversity Is the New Color This Year 81 Case Application 3-B: When Oversight Fails 81 Working with a Team: What’s Your Perception? 82 Learning an HRM Skill: Investigating a Harassment Complaint 82 Enhancing Your Communication Skills 83 DID YOU KNOW?: Suggestions for RecruitingRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 Pages.............................................................................. 299 CHAPTER 10 Deductive Reasoning .......................................................................................... 312 x Implying with Certainty vs. with Probability ................................................................................ 312 Distinguishing Deduction from Induction ..................................................................................... 319 Review of MajorRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesArendt, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay Anke Arnaud, University of Central Florida Mihran Aroian, University of Texas, Austin Gary Ballinger, Purdue University Deborah Balser, University of Missouri at St. Louis Christopher Barlow, DePaul University Joy Benson, University of Wisconsin at Green Bay Lehman Benson III, University of Arizona Jacqui Bergman, Appalachian State University Anne Berthelot, University of Texas at El Paso David Bess, Shidler College of Business at the University of Hawaii Bruce

The Ritz-Carlton Does Not Sell Hotel Rooms Free Essays

The Ritz Carlton runs in a way that makes every single detail about the consumer and the consumer’s needs, wants, and expectations. Every decision that they make they make with the consumer in mind. They essentially are selling unsurpassed service to their patrons. We will write a custom essay sample on The Ritz-Carlton Does Not Sell Hotel Rooms or any similar topic only for you Order Now The Ritz Carlton is very well-known for providing consistent service to its patrons in each of its locations throughout the world. They provide guests with high quality customer service, utilizing their Gold Standards for customer service, which include its credo, motto, employee promise, three steps of service, and the twelve service values. The three steps of service are fairly basic, however many companies overlook them, losing that opportunity to create a long lasting relationship with the guest. The first is to deliver a warm and sincere greeting and to use the guest’s name; the second is to anticipate and fulfill the needs of each guest; and the third is to give a warm good-bye, again using the guest’s name. The Ritz Carlton believes that guest recognition is a top priority. If employees recognize the guest, then they can give personalized service, have fast access to knowledge, and interactions that are largely hassle free. These Gold Standards continue to lead the company to outperform its competition and increase its customer loyalty. They also have programs designed to meet specific customer needs that include their Service Quality Indicators (SQIs). The Ritz Carlton continually improves its processes and programs in order to give its guests the exceptional service that they have come to be well known for giving in the hotel industry. In essence, they are selling service to consumers. The Ritz Carlton has applied for and won the Baldridge Award in 1992 and 1999, which confirmed that quality is not a short term approach to doing business. The Ritz Carlton works hard to achieve the highest customer and employee satisfaction in the industry. They believe it is critical to continually improve day after day. As a consumer, I would be willing to pay for a stay at the Ritz Carlton. I believe that the methods that they use are fantastic. They treat everyone, including their employees, with respect. That is something that many companies fail to even consider when they are building their business. There are many people who choose products and services from companies by looking at factors such as how they treat their employees, where their products are made, etc. rather than looking only at the price tag and looking for a place or item that is â€Å"cheap†. As a consumer, I would rather patronize a place that was more expensive and treated its employees like gold, than patronize a place that was cheap and treated its employees poorly. I believe that the Ritz Carlton offers an excellent service to their guests and I’m fairly certain that the majority of consumers would be willing to pay for it. However, the price of a hotel room at the Ritz Carlton is on the pricier side so I’m sure that there are plenty of people that would love to take advantage of staying there but would be unable to do so since they could not afford it. Do you think it’s possible for Ritz Carlton to create â€Å"ladies and gentlemen† in just 7 days? It most likely is possible for Ritz Carlton to do so because their employee selection process is highly refined and they are able to higher excellent candidates who understand this concept of â€Å"ladies and gentlemen†. The Ritz Carlton looks for individuals who understand their culture and will engage with other employees, managers and guests. They look for individuals who exhibit certain personality traits and hiring managers seek those individuals when they recruit and interview candidates. In order to ensure that interviewees are sincere and positive people, the hiring managers use two-part questions that will eliminate interviewees who are insincere. According to the article, Inside the Ritz Carlton’s Revolutionary Service, a prospective employee may be asked, â€Å"Are you a habitual smiler? †. If the candidate responds with a â€Å"yes†, then the hiring manager will proceed to ask, â€Å"Why do you smile? †. It is clear to see that the Ritz Carlton selects its employees very carefully in order to find employees that will understand the culture and be able to learn quickly how to be a lady or a gentleman. By looking for people that have the necessary talent to do the job, they feel they can teach the other skills necessary to get them to lady or gentleman status. The Ritz Carlton has a very slow orientation process that they feel can best prepare the new employee with the mission of the company. They feel that when an individual starts a new job, it is a significant emotional experience. During this time, that individual will be attentive and receptive to emotional changes. The Ritz Carlton uses this time to focus on their values and to instill those values into that employee. The employee than goes though their week of orientation and afterwards, they are expected to have adapted the company culture. It seems to me that between their vigorous selection process and the week of orientation, many of these individuals would be able to adapt to their culture as â€Å"a lady or gentlemen†. Also, it is important to point out that the company is well known for treating their employees very well. I would believe that their employees know this and would want to treat the company well in return. The employees must have a high level of employee morale. They have every reason to want to continue on as a â€Å"lady or a gentlemen† as their time continues on with the company. They will also have the chance for promotions in the future. The Ritz Carlton sets employees up for success starting by selecting the right employees for the right position within the company. They are then able to mold these individuals into the employees that they want them to be. They also treat them very well and give them room for growth. I believe that doing this ensures that these individuals will become â€Å"ladies and gentlemen† within the 7 days. How to cite The Ritz-Carlton Does Not Sell Hotel Rooms, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

The Withch

The Withch-hunt In Modern Europe Essay THE WITCH-HUNT IN MODERN EUROPE By: Brian Levack The Witch-Hunt in Modern Europe by Brian Levack proved to be an interesting as well as insightful look at the intriguing world of the European practice of witchcraft and witch-hunts. The book offers a solid, reasonable interpretation of the accusation, prosecution, and execution for witchcraft in Europe between 1450 and 1750. Levack focuses mainly on the circumstances from which the witch-hunts emerged, as this report will examine. The causes of witch-hunting have been sometimes in publications portrayed differently from reality. The hunts were not prisoner escapee type hunts but rather a hunt that involved the identification of individuals who were believed to be engaged in a secret activity. Sometimes professional witch-hunters carried on the task, but judicial authorities performed most. The cause of most of these hunts is the multi-causal approach, which sees the emergence of new ideas about the witches and changes in the criminal law statutes. Both point to major religious changes and a lot of social tension among society. The intellectual foundations of the hunts were attributed to the witchs face-to-face pact with the devil and the periodic meetings of witches to engage in practices considered to be barbaric and heinous. The cumulative concept of witchcraft pointed immediately to the devil, the source of the magic and the one most witches adored. There was strong belief then that witches made pacts with the devil. Some would barter their soul to the devil in exchange for a gift or a taste of well being. Many believed that these witches observed a nocturnal Sabbath where they worshipped the devil and paid their homage to him. They were also accused of being an organization known for its cannibalistic practices of infanticide incest. Another component of this cumulative concept was the belief of the flight of witches. The belief for this was contributed to by the assumption that witches took flight from thei r homes to goto nocturnal meetings without their absence from home being detected. The belief in flying night witches was shared by many cultures in the modern world. These women were referred to as strigae, which was one of the many Latin terms for witches. As the reader first opens the legal foundations of witch-hunting, one finds that historically it was a judicial process from discovery to elimination. Levack states that before the thirteenth century European courts used a system of criminal procedure that made all crimes difficult to prosecute. This system was known as the accusatorial system and existed predominantly in northwestern Europe. When the thirteenth century came into being, a new technique, which gave more human judgement in the criminal process, was adopted in Western Europe secular courts. This new court was known as inquisitorial courts. The only difference between the new system and the old when suits were begun by accusation was that the accuser was no longer r esponsible for the actual prosecution of the case (pg. 72). The new procedures were not in reality an improvement due to the fact that the standards of proof according to inquisitorial procedure were very demanding. Since the adoption of inquisitorial procedure represented a shift from reliance upon mans rational judgement, jurists agreed that it was absolutely necessary for judges to have conclusive proof of guilt before passing sentence (pg. 79). They relied on Roman law and based their conclusions on two eyewitnesses and the confession of the accused. The development of full judicial power given to the state in the prosecution of a crime was a major event. From the early times, the secular courts in Europe had taken part in the witch-hunts, and now as the hunt developed further along, the secular courts grew an even greater role in the process. This caused a decline in ecclesiastical court participation due to the fact that governments defined witchcraft as a secular crime, and t he temporal courts of some countries had a monopoly on the prosecution. The prosecution of magic was a mixed jurisdiction taken on by both courts but when convicted the guilty were executed under secular law. Since secular courts had jurisdiction over magic and maleficium they primarily assumed the significant role in prosecuting witches. As the hunt gathered steam in the sixteenth century, the developments resulted in a reduction of clerical jurisdiction and an increase in the amount of secular concern with it. The main reason was the defining of witchcraft as a secular crime. All of these factors led to a large-scale witch-hunts in Scotland but in some countries the retention of ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the crime led to a decline in the number of prosecutions. Local court decisions during this time also played a role in the conviction of witches. They had the ability to perform with a certain amount of independence from higher political and judicial control. There are two main reasons why local courts proved to be less lenient than central courts in the prosecutions of witchcraft (pg. 93). The first is that local authorities that presided over witch trials were far more likely than their central superiors to develop an intense and immediate fear of witchcraft (pg. 93). The second is that central judges were generally more committed to the proper operation of the judicial system and more willing therefore to afford accused witches whatever procedural safeguards the law might allow them (pg. 94). The decentralization of judicial life had lasting effects in countries like Germany, where no effective control by central authority led to increased hunts and more torturous executions. The formation of the cumulative concept of witchcraft and all the legal precedents introduced made the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth century witch-hunts possible. To look at the understanding of the hunt one must examine the religious, social, and economic conditions t hat began in modern Europe. During the time of the Reformation, the Europeans increased their awareness of satin and started to wage a larger war against him. A second effect of the Reformation on witchcraft arose from the emphasis that both Protestant and Catholic reformers placed on personal piety and sanctity (pg. 106). The Christianization of Europe also added to this war against the devil by eradication superstitious beliefs, eliminating paganism and suppressing magic. Witch-hunting was the most frequent in countries where large minorities adhered to different religions. Witch-hunting was the most intense in Germany, Switzerland, France, Poland, and Scotland (pg. 114). The effects of the Protestant and Catholic Reformation did have an effect on witch-hunts; they laid the foundation for their decline. There were various types of hunts that took place during European witch-hunt times. The main feature of the small hunt is that the search for malefactors is limited to the individu als who were originally accused (172). The main characteristic of a medium style hunt was that it included five to ten victims. The final type of hunt was the large hunt where tens to hundreds of witches were hunted and panic and hysteria were rampant everywhere. The end of the witch-hunts was usually an abrupt procedure. The small hunts for example were isolated prosecutions that ended when the accused were either executed or given an acquittal. Most of the time the end of a hunt lasted for many years, and up to generations. The explanations for the geographical unevenness in the hunts cannot be simply put. According to Levack, there were four separate but related factors. The first was the nature of witch beliefs in a particular region and the strength in which they were held (231). The disparity can be seen for example in countries like England, the Scandinavian countries, and Spain where the prosecutions included a number of individual trials for maleficium and some for Devil-wo rship. The second factor is determining the relative intensity of hunts was the criminal procedure used. Not all countries used the inquisitorial procedure and torture method. The third determinant was the extent to which the central judicial authority had control on the trials. Central control did not always prevail, since some rulers wanted to completely exterminate witchcraft. The final factor is the degree of religious zeal manifested by the people of a region (232). This was most evident in large hunts and countries known for their large numerous executions and not known for their Christianity. The decline in witchcraft can be attributed to a multitude of factors. There were three main judicial and legal developments that contributed to the decline of witchcraft: the demand for conclusive evidence regarding maleficium and the pact, the adoption of stricter rules regarding the use of torture, the promulgation of decrees either restricting or eliminating prosecutions for witchcra ft (236). The mental outlook was also changing at the time as judges and princes set out to create new rules for torture and restricting witchcraft. The most important religious factor in this decline was the change of the religious climate that occurred in the late seventeenth century. The socioeconomic changes could be felt in a general improvement of living conditions that reduced some of the local village tensions that lay at the basis of witchcraft prosecutions. Witches no longer posed the threat that they once did. The economic and social chaos of this century and the political and religious instability caused anxiety that led to witches becoming a scapegoat for the general ills of society during their rapid time of change. Witchcraft had become somewhat of a hobby! In conclusion, Levack gives the reader a full understanding of witchcraft during this time and the historical insight and vivid description adds to the livelihood of the period. Levacks insight gives the consistenc y that witch-hunts were sparked by diverse and complex causes, which he supports in his book. According to a book review by Elizabeth Furdell, Levack uses many sources to provide national examinations of the witchcraze. An example of this Levacks conclusion that while German communities exhibited frenzied paranoia directed at witches, England did only a little witch-hunting. He uses reliable and multiple reasons to prove his thesis. The book offers a solid, reasonable interpretation of the accusations, prosecutions, and execution of thousands of witches in Europe, and Levack leaves the reader wondering if he the individual if he/she had lived during this period would have been hunting witches or hunting fox?Category: Book Reports .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f , .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f .postImageUrl , .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f , .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f:hover , .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f:visited , .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f:active { border:0!important; } .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f:active , .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud3497880fa484397cdbbc72c9807c45f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Abortion - Pro-Choice Views Essay We will write a custom essay on The Withch-hunt In Modern Europe specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Public rhetoric creates a society in which truth comes a poor second to propagand Essay Example

Public rhetoric creates a society in which truth comes a poor second to propagand Essay Example Public rhetoric creates a society in which truth comes a poor second to propagand Paper Public rhetoric creates a society in which truth comes a poor second to propagand Paper Essay Topic: History Public Speaking Rhetoric has been defined and analysis in different ways, therefore to study the role of rhetoric in society it is important first to define the term itself. Rhetoric according to the dictionary is the Art of effective or persuasive speech or writing1. Farrell defines rhetoric as the collaborative art of addressing and guiding decision and judgement2 and suggests it is a public language3 for successful cultures. Rhetoric therefore means the art of using language to persuade or influence the human subject. It is usually applied to persuasive attempts directed at an audience, often in some formal or institutional setting.4 Rhetoric plays a huge role in influencing public opinion therefore in order to confront the idea that Public rhetoric creates a society in which truth comes a poor second to propaganda it is important first to outline the meaning of the two terms Truth and Propaganda. The dictionary suggests a broad definition of the word truth: Truth- Quality or state of being true5, this definition however, does not give a substantial enough meaning of the word. Truth is something that you believe to be right, a testing of ideas that are believed to be reliable. This is my own definition of truth, which I believe outlines what truth constitutes of. Jowett and ODonnell define propaganda as means to disseminate or promote particular ideas6 the definition goes further in explaining that Propaganda is the deliberate and systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behaviour to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist7. This definition of propaganda focuses on the communicative process and most specifically the purpose of the process, the purpose being to send out an ideology to an audience with a related objective. My own perception of propaganda, in its most neutral sense, is that propaganda is a set of ideas put out politically. This essay will consider the way in which public rhetoric can be used for persuasive purposes. Political speech/es and movie speeches will form the basis of my analysis. Talk is often called a speech event. A speech which urges the audience to do, say, feel, or think something8 A speech event is orientated to achieving goals predicated on the existence of an audience and is described by the linguist Hymes as an occurrence of speech within a larger context.9 Political speeches operate within this context. When a speech event takes place it is important to note that what is said is governed by the intention of the speakers within a given context, (both the immediate situation and the wider social context), as well as by the available discourses in the language and the situation in particular. The discourse used will consist of a particular form and content, taken from a set of available discourses. In Tony Blairs speech (July 17,2003) he addresses the U.S Congress in accepting the Congressional Gold Medal. The speech is given in a formal setting. Blair as a leader has authority and his authority is acknowledged by his followers or sub-ordinates, this assembly of such individuals create the appropriate conditions of speech making, however, Blair is not only addressing these individuals but also the electronic public sphere, so his speech becomes for public consumption. The speech opens with a direct address to Mr. Speaker, Mr. Vice President (and the) honorable members of Congress. The audiences both locally present and listening to the broadcast are also being addressed in this speech. The prime minister first shows respect for the status of the distinguished individuals, then later cleverly reduces them all to the common level of citizens of the great republic making them all seem equal. We were all reared on battles between great warriors, between great nations, between powerful forces and ideologies that dominated entire continents. Immediate uses of rhetorical devices are evident in this statement. Here we witness, the employment of the inclusive we along with the repetition of the word between to emphasise his points. The use of the personal pronoun we attempts to position the audience, the idea being that this type of address attempts to represent the interests and opinions of Blair and audience as identical. Public speaking attempts to position its audience (Atkinson, 1984) Therefore there is a strong link between language and power, what is being said is related to Blairs power as Prime Minister. Blair affiliates himself with his primary audience the U.S Congress aswell his secondary audience the public. Within the first few lines of the speech we see the uses of antithetic parallelism. The first antithesis is in a notbut structure. by showing them (service men and women) and their families that they did not strive or die in vain, but that through their sacrifice future generations can live in greater peace, prosperity and hope. Here we witness assertion, an example of contrast or juxtaposition and an affiliation with the public expressed with the use of families. All writing and texts make references to the world that we know and Blair too does this in his speech: Through the troubled times since September 11th changed our world, we have been allies and friends September 11 was not an isolated event, but a tragic prologue From this statement we get reference to the accepted existence of certain events. All writing or text depends on pre-existing themes to make its point. (Barker, 1989) Blair later addresses themes about terrorism. The Prime-Minister voices his opinions openly and is interested in colloquial language, sympathetic circularity and the habit of speaking from experience. He presents himself as a reasonably ordinary person and talks about his son. Actually, you know, my middle son was studying 18th century history and the American war of Independence Here we witness, the use of colloquial language you know and yet another form of identification with the public. The lexis of the speech comes from everyday speech, there are no specialists or obscure terms and most sentences are simple structurally, this therefore allows an easier understanding in the audience. He then goes on to talk about belief: In the end it is not our power alone that will defeat this evil. Our ultimate weapon is not our guns, but our beliefs Belief is a firm conviction in the existence or rightness of something, however this differs from position. The belief of a politician and the expression of that belief differentiate greatly. What Blair says is not necessarily what he believes. However, all politicians are aware that they have to act in a particular context bearing in mind the welfare and well being of an audience. All social actors have goals, make moves, take turns, employ tactics and work out strategies (Nofsinger, 1991) He continues: There is a myth that though we love freedom, others dont; that our attachment to freedom is a product of our culture; that freedom, democracy, human rights, the rule of law are American values, or Western values; that afghan women were content under the lash of the Taliban; that Saddam was somehow beloved by his people; that Milosevic was Serbias savior The key word here is freedom. Freedom can be economical, cultural or political, in this sense he talks about Freedom for all, not just for those in a western society. Ours are not western values; they are the universal values of human spirit. And anywhereAnywhere, anytime ordinary people are given the chance to choose, the choice is the same: freedom, not tyranny; democracy, not dictatorship; the rule of law; not the rule of the secret police. Here he presents a series of oppositions and makes use of contrast to put his point across. His points consist of a three part list and include the repetition of anywhere emphasizing the idea that freedom is a universal value and can be present anywhere in the world. He uses further parallelisms to get his point across: The spread of freedom is the best security for the free. It is our last line of defense and our first line of attack. And just as the terrorist seeks to divide humanity in hate, so we have to unify it around an idea. And that idea is liberty. In other words, in oppositional terms, the terrorists attack and divide and the allies (Britain and America) defend and unify. This could be described as what Jowett and ODonnell call White propaganda. White propaganda is when the source is identified correctly and the information in the message tends to be accurateAlthough what listeners hear is reasonably close to the truth, it is presented in the manner that attempts to convince the audience that the sender is the good guy with the best ideas and political ideology.10 Each speaker has a purpose; Blair for example, has the purpose of increasing the morale of the British and American people after or throughout the war on terror. Politicians have a tendency to use the word freedom vastly in the public arena, both in speeches and party election broadcasts. Blairs speech is built around a tired clichà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½- the importance of freedom, the need for it, how other cherished values depend on it and how it will triumph. This is his way of justifying the war in Iraq. He concludes his talk on freedom with the words of Abraham Lincoln: We must find the strength to fight for this idea and the compassion to make it universal. Abraham Lincoln said Those that deny freedom to others deserve it not for themselves and it is this sense of justice that makes moral love a liberty The speech is bombarded with references to freedom and being free. Rhetorical questions, assertions, three part lists and contrast and juxtaposition are present throughout the speech till its end, and these are all common features of public rhetoric. Some of the most famous examples of public rhetoric have been produced by military leaders preparing troops for battle. These speeches, both real and fictitious, usually demonstrate the great motivating power of what Aristotle calls pathos. Pathos (emotional proof) is the feeling the speech draws from the hearers. In the film Braveheart (1995) the scene in which William Wallace addresses the Scottish Army at Stirling provides such a speech. Wallace establishes his credentials and introduces himself. He then goes on to address the idea of freedom: You have come to fight as free men, and free men you are. What would you do without freedom, will you fight? He uses the personal pronoun you to address the whole collective. The basic difference between Blairs speech and Wallaces speech is that Blair talks about making freedom a universal theme as many countries do not have it. Wallace speaks of freedom in a patriotic manner. They may take our lives, but theyll never take our freedom. In this context, the soldiers answer back and have the right to speak-one of the key concepts of freedom. In a political context, only the speaker expresses his beliefs and ideas and the audience is positioned in a way to accept these beliefs and ideas imposed on them. The movie scene in which General Maximus Meridius addresses Caesar Commodus in the film Gladiator (2000) provides another example of Rhetoric in movie speeches. My name is Maximus Decimus Meridius, Commander of the Armies of the North, General of the Felix Legions, loyal servant to the true emperor, Marcus Aurelius, father to a murdered son, husband to a murdered wife, and I will have my vengeance in this life-or the next11 The speech begins with a formal mode of address; he introduces himself and creates an assertion. He then goes on to assert his authority, Commander; General; loyal servant; Father and Husband are all terms or names linked with authority. The second, third and fourth assertion consist of a three part list reiterating his authority, however his fifth, sixth and seventh assertions express an undesired state of affairs. His wife and child have been murdered and he wants his revenge. In this short address a narrative is established, which consists of a storyline used by the storyteller. The themes which emerge most clearly in the course of the narrative concern masculinity, power, heroism and the nature of group leadership. Narrative should not be seen as simply a fictional practice, as human beings report everyday events and encounters in the form of narrative. Central to the study of rhetoric is the audience. Responses to persuasion Conclusion/s In addressing the idea that Public rhetoric creates a society in which truth comes a poor second to propaganda I conclude that public rhetoric has both a positive and negative condition to it in society. In Blairs speech there is a sincere concern for the welfare of the audience. Certain ideas and messages are selected by him and imposed on the audience, this does, therefore mean that the selection of this information is biased as he chooses what to tell the audience and what to keep from them, however Blair does not use rhetoric in a negative, manipulative or dishonest way, he simply uses persuasive techniques to get his point across. In his Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle, with regard to persuasion indicated that a crafty person could artfully manipulate the instruments of rhetoric for either honest or dishonest terms. Depending upon which end is desired, the use of rhetorical devices is judged accordingly: ifthe aim be good, the cleverness is praiseworthy; but if it be bad, it becomes craft.12 A speaker faced with having to articulate a message on a public platform e.g. Tony Blair with the knowledge that it would gain a wider circulation, would perhaps be more circumspect in his subject matter or address. More Importantly, Blair might frame the message using a rhetorical construction as I have shown. Propaganda is a form of communication that is different from persuasion because it attempts to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist. Blairs message is not that of propaganda. To identify as message as propaganda is to suggest something negative and dishonest, words frequently used as synonyms for propaganda are lies, distortion, deceit, manipulation and brainwashing. Many of these synonyms are suggestive of techniques of message production rather than purpose or process. Blairs purpose is to keep the interests and well being of the public audience at heart, he does not lie or distort information, however he may hide the truth from us in places are he believes it is for the best. No audience, no matter how perverse in its own needs, will put up with hearing that they are being manipulated and used to fulfill anothers selfish needs. Thus the propagandist cannot reveal the true intent of the message. 13 However, as Althusser argues the media are ideological state apparatus; they produce meanings in the audience. The voice of the author in a novel, speech, advertisement or television program guides us through, the text or story; therefore it is not necessarily true as we as readers are not allowed to align ourselves with a particular character, person, and situation. In Blairs speech, what you see on the surface does not necessarily tell you about the truth of the world. There are structures that you cant see for example, the economic status, political status or public relations between classes and races. We are colored by dominant ideology which influences our beliefs and ideas; so on the other hand, manipulation can be seen as an instrument of ideology. In comparison to Blairs speech, the speeches in the examples given, although fictitious, rhetoric is used in a positive retrospect as both characters do not try to manipulate their audiences but try to persuade them.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Hello World CGI Script in Perl

Hello World CGI Script in Perl A CGI script can be as simple or complex as you need it to be. It could be in Perl, Java, Python or any programming language. At its core, a CGI application simply takes a request via HTTP (typically a web browser) and returns HTML. Lets look at a simple Perl  Hello World CGI script and break it down into its simplest forms. Hello World CGI Perl Script #!/usr/bin/perl print Content-type: text/html\n\n; print HTML; html head titleA Simple Perl CGI/title /head body h1A Simple Perl CGI/h1 pHello World/p /body HTML exit; If you run the program on the command line, youll see that it does exactly what youd expect. First, it prints the Content-type line, then it prints the raw HTML. In order to see it in action in a web browser, youll need to copy or upload the script to your web server and make sure the permissions are set correctly (chmod 755 on *nix systems). Once youve set it correctly, you should be able to browse to it and see the page displayed live on your server. The key line is the first print statement: print Content-type: text/html\n\n; This tells the browser that the document coming after the two newlines is going to be HTML. You must send a header so the browser knows what type of document is coming next, and you must include a blank line between the header and the actual document. Once the header is sent, its just a matter of sending the HTML document itself. In the above example, were using a here-doc to simplify printing a large chunk of plain text. Of course, this is really no different than having a plain HTML document sitting on your server. The real power of using a programming language like Perl to create your HTML comes when you add in some fancy Perl programming. Adding on to the Basic Script In the next example, lets take part of this  time and date script and add it to your web page. #!/usr/bin/perl months qw(Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec); weekDays qw(Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun); ($second, $minute, $hour, $dayOfMonth, $month, $yearOffset, $dayOfWeek, $dayOfYear, $daylightSavings) localtime(); $year 1900 $yearOffset; $theTime $weekDays[$dayOfWeek] $months[$month] $dayOfMonth, $year; print Content-type: text/html\n\n; print HTML; html head titleA Simple Perl CGI/title /head body h1A Simple Perl CGI/h1 p$theTime/p /body HTML exit; This new CGI script will insert the current date into the page each time the script is called. In other words, it becomes a dynamic document that changes as the date changes, rather than a static document.